ANCIENT AND EARLY MEDIEVAL ECLIPSES IN EUROPEAN SOURCES

1. Ginzel F.K. Spezielle Kanon der Sonnen- und Mondfinsternisse fu"r das La"ndergebiet der klassischen Altertumwissenschaften un den Zeitraum von 900 vor Chr. bis 600 nach Chr. - Berlin: Mayer & Mu"ller, 1899.) [Marked in table by bold face]
2. J.K.Fotheringham, A Solution of Ancient Eclipses of the Sun, Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc., 1920, v.LXXXI, #2, p.104-126. (J.K.Fotheringham)
3. R.R.Newton, Ancient astronomical observations and the acceleration of the earth and moon, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1970 (R.R.Newton, 1970)
4. R.R.Newton, Medieval chronicles and the rotation of the earth,  The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972 (R.R.Newton, 1972)
5. R.R.Newton, The Moon's acceleration and its Physical Origins (Volume I. As deduced from Solar Eclipses), John Hopkins Press, London, 1979 (R.R.Newton, 1979)
6. F. R. Stephenson, Historical Eclipses and Earth's Rotation, Cambridge University Press, 1997.
7. D.J.Schove, A.Fletcher, Chronology of Eclipses and Comets, AD 1-1000. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press, 1987.
8. M. Zawilski, "The catalog of the historical observations of the solar eclipses for Europe and the Near East, v.3.2, 2000.
9. Loeb Classical Library (LCL).
10. Monumenta Germaniae Historica (MGH).
Other sources.
 
Ginzel
number
Year Comments Source
?S -1177 Apr 16? Prophecy in Odyssey, in which some see a description of an eclipse Homer, "Odyssey"
?S.
?S.
?S.
771
753
715
Magic eclipses during Romulus: birth, foundation of Rome, death Plutarch, "Romulus"
Cicero, "De Republica"
Varro
1S -647, Apr. 6 The solar eclipse observed by the poet Archilochus Archilochus 
2S -584, May 28 Prediction (?) of eclipse  by Thales during the war between Lydians and Medes Herodotus
Pliny, "Natural History"
Cicero "De Divinatione"
Cicero, "De Republica"
"Suda", Plato, Climent of Alexandria, Eusebius, Femistius,  Theon of Smirna, Stobeus, Aetius
3S? -556, May 19 The siege of Larisa Xenophon, "Anabasis"
4S -479, Oct. 2  Retreat of Cleombrotus Herodotus
5S -477, Feb. 17 March towards Abydos Herodotus
Aristides
?S -462, Apr. 30? Eclipse observed by Pindar Pindar
?S ~ -450 Empedocles
6S -430, Aug. 3  Solar eclipse during Peloponnesian war Thucydides
Plutarch, "Pericles"
Cicero, "De Republica"
Quintilianus
Valerius Maximus
7L -424, Oct. 9 The choice of Cleon Aristophanes, "The Clouds"
Schol. gr.
8S -423, Mar. 21  The beginning of the 8-th year of Peloponessian war Thucydides
9L -412, Aug. 27 The captivity of Nicias Thucydides
Plutarch, "Nicias"
Polibius
Quintilianus
10L -405, Apr. 15 The fire in the temple of Athen Xenophon, "Hellenica"
11S -403, Sep. 3 The victory of Lycophron  Xenophon, "Hellenica"
Seneca, "De beneficiis"
12S -399, Jun. 21 Eclipse recorded by Ennius Cicero, "De Republica"
13S -393, Aug. 14  Xenophon, "Hellenica"
Plutarch, "Agesilaus"
14S -363, Jun. 13 Diodorus
Plutarch, "Pelopidas"
15S -360, May 12 Helicon fortells eclipse Plutarch, "Dion"
16L -356, Aug. 9  Plutarch, "Nicias"
Plutarch, "Dion"
Quintilianus
17S -339, Sep.15  Livy
18L -330, Sep. 20  Eclipse before the Arbela battle of Alexander the Great Plutarch, "Alexander"
Arrian
Ptolemy, "Geography"
Pliny, "Natural History"
Curtius
19S -309, Aug.15  Diodorus
Justin
Frontinus
20S -295, Nov. 7
-293, Mar. 24 
Livy
Zonaras  VIII, 1
21L -218, Mar. 20  Polibius
22S -216, Feb.11 Partial eclipse in Sardinia Livy
23S -202, May 6 Partal eclipse at Cumae Livy
24S -201, Oct.19  Zonaras 
25S -189, Mar. 14 Livy
26S -187, Jun. 17 Meteor shower Livy
27L -167, Jun. 21 Gallus explains lunar eclipse before the battle Livy
Polibius
Plutarch, "Aemilius Paulus"
Cicero, "De Republica"
Valerius Maximus
Frontinus
Pliny, "Natural History"
Quintilianus
(*)L -128, Nov. 5 The death of Carneades Diogenes Laertius
S -128, Nov. 20? Eclipse observed by Hypparchus Pappus
Cleomedes
(**)S -162, Mar. 15  Obsequentis
28S -103, Jul. 19 Obsequentis
29S -93, Jun. 29 ? Consulship of Celius and Domitius Obsequentis
30L -62, May 3 Consulship of Cicero Cicero, "De Divinatione"
31S? Pompeius goes to Dirrachium
Caesar Crosses Rubicon
The assasination of Caesar
 
 
 
 

 

Dio Cassius
Lucan
Vergilius
Servius
Ovid, "Metamorphoses"
Tibullus, "Ellegiae"
Sextus Aurelius Victor
Plutarch, "Caesar"
Pliny, "Natural History", II, 98
32L -4, Mar. 13  The death of Herod Flavius Josephus, "Antiquities of the Jews"
33S 5, Mar. 28  Earthquake Dio Cassius
34L
S?
14, Sep. 27
17, Feb. 15?
The death of Augustus Cornelius Tacitus
Dio Cassius

Dio Cassius
Eusebius/Jerome
35S 29, Nov.  24 The Crucifixion of Jesus New Testament
Tertullian, "Apology"
Eusebius
Jerome
Origen, "Contra Celsus"
John Philopon
John Malala
Michael Syrian
Synkellos
Cassiodorus
Photius
Dio Cassius, LVII, 24
36L 33, Apr. 3 The Crucifixion of Jesus ?
37S 45, Aug. 1  Birthday of Claudis Dio Cassius
38L 47, Jan. 1 The appearence of a new island Sextus Aurelius Victor
39S 59, Apr. 30 The death of Agrippina. Simultaneous eclipse in Italy and Armenia Pliny, "Natural History"
Cornelius Tacitus, "The Annals"
Dio Cassius
Martianus Capella, De Nupt., VI
39*S. 67, May 31   Flavius Philostratus
39**L 68, Oct. 29
69, Apr. 25
69, Oct. 18 
Dio Cassius
40S 71, Mar. 20  The eclipse observed by Plutarch Plutarch, "The Face of the Moon"
41S
    L
71, Mar. 20 
& Mar. 4 
A pair of eclipses in 15 days during Vespasianus Pliny, "Natural History"
41*S. 71, Mar. 20 
98, Mar. 21 
Flavius Philostratus
Sextus Aurelius Victor
  118, Sep. 3  Consulship of Hadrian and Salinator Fasti Vindobonenses
42S 186, Dec. 28 Eclipse and comet during Commodus Aelius Lampridius
Herodian
43S 212, Aug. 14 Eclipse at Utica Tertullian, "Ad Scapulam"
44S 218, Oct. 7 Eclipse during Heliogaballus Dio Cassius
45S 240, Aug. 5  Eclipse during Gordianus Iulius Capitolinus
46S 292, May 4 Eclipse during elevation of Chlorus and Maximus to Caesars Consularia Constantinopolitana
47L 304, Aug. 31  Death of St.Felix Life of St. Felix
48S 316, Jul. 6 Eclipse during Licinius Sextus Aurelius Victor
49S 319, May 6 The 5-th consulship of Licinius Consularia Constantinopolitana
50S 324, Aug. 6  Earthquake in Campania Georgios Hamartolos
Cedrenus
51S 334, Jul. 17 Eclipse predicted by astrologers Firmicus Maternus
52S 346, Jun. 6   Theophanes, "Chronographia"
Cedrenus
Eusebius/Jerome
Mellicenses
Herimanni Aug.
Sancti Trudberti
Ekkehardi Chron.
53S 348, Oct. 9   Theophanes, "Chronographia"
Eusebius, "Chronicle"
Cassiodorus
54S 360, Aug. 28  Eclipse in Mesopotamia in sunrise Ammianus Marcelinus
55S 364, Jun. 16 Eclipse precalculated by Theon Theon, "Comments on Almagest"
56S 393, Nov. 20  The 3-d consulship of Theodosius Fasti Vindobonenses
Marcellini Chronicon
57S 400, Jul. 8   Hieronymi "Contra Joannem"
58L 400, Dec. 17
401, Jun. 12
401, Dec. 6
The battle at Pollentino Claudian, "De Bello Pollentino"
59S 402, Nov. 11 The 5-th consulship of Arcadius and Honorius Hydatii chronicon
Consularia Constantinopolitana
Chronica Gallica
60S 418, Jul.19 Philostorgius
Marcellini Chronicon
Fasti Vindobonenses
Hydatii chronicon
Chronica Gallica
Annales chronographi vetusti
Excerpt. Sangall.
Adnotationes ad cycl. Dionysianos
Blandiniensis
Paschale Campanum
Salisburgenses
Herimanni Chronicon
Bernoldi Chronicon
Chronicon suevic. univers,
Mellicenses
Esromenses
Farfenses (?)
61S 447, Dec. 23 Hydatii chronicon
Annales Lundenses
The Annals of Inisfallen
The Annals of Wales
62L 451, Sep. 26  The Halley comet Hydatii chronicon Isidorus Hispalensis
63S 458, May 28 Hydatii chronicon
64L 462, Mar. 2    Hydatii chronicon
65S 464, Jul. 20   Hydatii chronicon
66S 484, Jan. 14
486, May 19
Death of Proclus
Fortelled eclipse
Marino Neapolitano
67S 485, May 29 The death of Gunnerich  Gregory of Tours
Paschale Campanum
68S 497, Apr. 18   Marcellini Chronicon
The Annals of Ulster
The Annals of Tigernach
The Chronicon Scotorum
69S 512, Jun. 29 Vesuvius eruption Marcellini Chronicon
Paschale Campanum
The Annals of Ulster
The Chronicon Scotorum
Zachariah of Mitylene
Michael I
70S 538, Feb.15   Bede
Anglo-saxon Chronicle
Chronicon Ethelwerdi
Annales S. Maximini Trevirensis
Henrici Huntinon. hist lib.
Annales Lundenses
Annales Prioratus de Wigornia
71S 540, Jun. 20   Bede
Anglo-saxon Chronicle
Annales S. Maximini Trevirensis
Chronicon Ethelwerdi 
Henrici Huntinon. hist lib.
Annales Lundenses
Annales Prioratus de Wigornia
Fasti Vindobonenses
72S
    L
547, Feb. 6
& Aug.17 
Stephan fortells eclipse Cosmas Indikopleustes
73S 563, Oct. 3 Portents in 563 Gregory of Tours
74L 567, Dec. 31   Excerptum Sangallense
75L 577, Dec. 11 Portents in 577 Gregory of Tours
76L 581, Apr. 5 Comet Gregory of Tours
77L 582, Sep. 18 Gregory of Tours
Aimoin, De Gest. Franc.
78S 590, Oct. 4  The war of Mauricius with slavs Gregory of Tours
Theophylacti Simocattae hist. lib.
Theophanis, Chronographia
Anastasii Bibliothecarii hist. eccles.
Zonaras
79L 590, Oct.18 Battle near the river Vicinonia Fredegarius Scholasticus
80S
(*)S
592, Mar. 19
594, Jul. 23
  Fredegarius Scholasticus
Chroniques de St. Denis
Aimoin, De Gest. Franc
Sigebertus
The Annals of Ulster
The Annals of Tigernach
The Chronicon Scotorum
The Annals of Inisfallen