Автор сообщения: gorm
Дата и время сообщения: 11 February 2006 at 12:10:26:
В ответ на сообщение: А почему бы и не Гелланик?
Я все-таки стою за Эратосфена, как первого известного нам автора специального труда по общей хронологии. Хотя Гелланик тоже хороший кандидат. Привожу окончание 1-й главы фундаментального книги E.Breisach, "Historiography", которую сейчас читаю.
Around 500 B.C.. the Greeks began to grope towards the concept of continuous time and with it a history in which an unbroken line of years filled with events would stretch from the present into the most distant past. The timeless gods did not decree that view nor did the heroes need it, whose deeds surpassed all time, but the dwellers of the polls had use for it as they began to shape their lives. life in the polis consisted not of isolated episodes in heroic lives but relied on the continuity of institutions, rules, laws, contracts, and expectations.
The chronological control of the past. Hecataeus of Miletus, who strained so hard to shape the geography of his world according to rational concepts, also dealt with the problem of time in his Genealogies. Fragmentary remains indicate that he attempted to link the age of humans with the so far timeless mythical age by constructing an unbroken sequence of identified generations for that long interval. The habit of looking for illustrious ancestors of cities, peoples, or families in the dim period of heroes and gods had established that link to the distant past which Hecataeus now wished to organize in human terms.
In the fifth century B.C. the Lydian Xanthus recorded the past of his people up to the downfall of their King Croesus. It is remarkable that he already attempted to relate the human events of the past, mythical and otherwise, to memorable and potentially datable natural events such as earthquakes and droughts. Later in the century, Hellanicus of Lesbos used a generation count as a chronological tool in his Troica and, based on it, placed the fall of Troy in the year equivalent to about 1240 B.C. In his Attic History Hellanicus proceeded beyond a mere generation count and, Thucydides' subsequent criticism notwithstanding, proposed a new tool for dating events: lists of officeholders kept by cities and temples. He himself used the list of the priestesses of Hera at Argos and in another work the list of winners of the Carnean games. Using the Argos list, Hellanicus tried valiantly to sort into chronological order a multitude of events-Greek, Sicilian, Roman (including the founding of Rome).
Hellanicus's idea led to other lists: those of Olympic victors (Hippias of Elis), of the ephors in Sparta (beginning with 755 B.C.), and of archons in Athens (since 683/82 B.C.). But how could one fit together all these separate records of ephors, archons, priests, priestesses, and games so that they formed one time frame? This question was not answered for a long time. When it was, the answers originated less in intellectual contemplation than in practical needs. A uniform time-scale for all Greeks was not yet a practical necessity for the fragmented world of city-states. Hence even Hellanicus's two famous contemporaries, Herodotus of Halicarnassus and Thucydides, remained traditional in chronology.
Herodotus, whose wide-ranging account would have had the greater need for a chronology, simply improvised. Perceiving no unifying tie between the histories of the Lydians, Persians, Egyptians, and Greeks, he gave them no proper chronological cohesion. Each segment had its own chronological structure. His occasional attempts to coordinate Greek and oriental time schemes failed, most notably his experiment with the Egyptian dynastic lists. The stretches of plotless ethnographic and geographic descriptions in his Histories called for no consistent time frame, and in the narrative sections he let the logic of stories suggest the sequence in time. Only from the Ionian revolt on did Herodotus's chronology become more systematic.
In this as in most respects, Thucydides was more systematic. He displayed both the achievements and limitations of contemporary Greek chronology when he dated the beginning of the Peloponnesian War:
For fourteen years, the thirty years' peace which was concluded after the recovery of Euboea remained unbroken. But in the fifteenth year, when Chrysis the high priestess of Argos was in the forty-eighth year of her priesthood, Zenesias was ephor of Sparta, and Pythodorus had four months of his archonship to run at Athens, in the tenth month after the engagement at Potidaea at the beginning of spring, about the first watch of the night, an armed force of somewhat more than three hundred Thebans entered Plataea, a city of Boeotia, which was an ally of Athens.
Yet, after he had located the start of the war in time, Thucydides had no more recourse to the lists of officeholders. From then on he simply counted the summers and winters which had elapsed. The story of the war built its own time frame.