Автор сообщения: Roger
Дата и время сообщения: 03 March 2006 at 23:43:21:
В ответ на сообщение: Датировка затмения Прокла
Я тоже хочу поделиться с Вами своей маленькой радостью. На Новый Год я подарил себе книгу D. Justin Schove, Alan Fletcher "Chronology of Eclipses and Comets, AD 1-1000". Отчасти это было связано с беседой о Прокле, так что тут я Вам признателен. Чтобы не оставаться в долгу, я набил оттуда всё, что касается этих двух затмений. Конечно, немного жалко, что мои достижения в греческой словестности являются давно пройденным этапом в развитии науки, но я, признаться, и не рассчитывал на какие-то сногсшибательные открытия в этой области.
S.484 Jan.14 (Sat.) SOLAR ECLIPSE IN GREECE AND PERSIA
In the life of Athenian philosopher Proclus, written, probably very soon after the death of Proclus, by his pupil and successor Marinus, an observed solar eclipse and a predicted eclipse are mentioned; Marini vita Procli, ed. J.F. Boissonade, 1814, Ch.37, p.29. "Portents occurred a year before his death, such as the solar eclipse, which was so considerable that night occurred in the daytime. For there was deep darkness and stars were seen. This happened in Capricorn near the rising point (of the Sun). The Almanac makers also noted another eclipse as due to occur about the end of the first year." Ginz.1899, 222 gives Greek text and German translation; Newt.1970, 119-120; 1972, 540, gives a first and a revised English translation, with comments; there is an English translation of the whole Life in L.J.Rosán, the Philosophy of Proclus, New York 1949, pp.13-35. Stephenson and Clark 1978, 4, give a revised translation and state that this is probably the most reliable of all solar eclipses reported in the Classics, adding "It is a pity that there is no precise mention of totality". We have credited it with 9 points for identification and 6 for the information contained. This eclipse is used by Newt.1979, 420, by Muller and Stephenson 1975, and by Muller 1975.
In Ch.35, Marinus says that Proclus died on April 17 in the 124th year after the rule of Julian. Here Marinus is counting his years for ideological reasons from the reign of Julian the Apostate, who became sole emperor on 361 Nov.3. We are aware of no reckoning which would make Marinus put the death of Proclus outside the triennium AD 484-6; AD 485 is the most commonly accepted. Marinus also gives the archon of Athens for the year as the younger Nicagoras, who appears to have functioned in 484-5.
In that period, or even one extended at both ends, the only solar eclipse which occurred in Capricorn was S.484 Jan 14, which did occur in Capricorn and around sunrise at Athens. As far as we know, the identification has never been challenged. The discussion in Ginz.1899, 222 and the re-discussion by Neugebauer (1931) argue respectively for totality actually at, and only near, Athens.
The earliest identification we have ourselves inspected is given in Ricc.1653, but this refers back a few years to the catalogue of Reinerius (Vincenzo Reinieri, d.1684).
The other eclipse, which is merely predicted, is usually considered to be S.486 May 19 (q.v.).
S.484 Jan 14 is best known in relation to Proclus, as above. But the track of totality, beginning at sunrise in or near Greece, travelled via approximately Southern Asia Minor, Syria and Mesopotamia to a noon point in Central Asia, and there is a correctly dated (though not contemporary) record from the Near East. "An 795. En lequel le soleil s'éclipsa le Samedi 14 Kanun II, à trios heures de la journée, et les étoiles apparurent. En ce temps-là, Piruz, roi des Perses, fut tué. (Hist. ecclés. de Barsohède de Karka)". The extant source is Elias 1910, 74. Seleucid 795 is AD 483-4, second Kanun is January. According to Bury, Hist. Later Rom. Emp., 1, 1923, 397, Piruz fell in battle in 484 January. "At three hours of the day" sounds late for an eclipse which probably occurred an hour or so after sunrise, but no great accuracy was intended; the third, sixth and ninth hours may be regarded as a canonical division of the day into four parts. Barsohedes is described by Delaporte (p.xi) as a Nestorian writer of the commencement of the eighth century.
S.486 May 19 SOLAR ECLIPSE IN SYRIA OR ARABIA
This eclipse is mentioned probably by Marinus and certainly by Elias. Apart from the observed solar eclipse of 484 Jan.14 (q.v.), the Vita Procli mentions only a predicted eclipse (solar not stated, but probably meant). There is doubt, if only slight, about the identification of the predicted eclipse. The following possibilities arise.
The death of Proclus may have occurred on April 17 of (A) 484, (B) 485, or (C) 486. Strict regnal years of Julian point to (B). Year-beginnings on Jan.1 (consular) or in spring (before April 17), both unlikely, could give (A) or (B); summer or autumn year beginnings could give (B) or (C).
The predicted eclipse may have been (1) S.485 May 29, (2) S.486 May 19, or (3) S.487 Nov.1. For (1), see above, under Gregory's first eclipse; Ginzel found it invisible at Athens, but it may still have been predicted. For (2), total in west Africa, Libya, Arabia, etc., Ginz.1899 gave 0.68 as the magnitude of the partial eclipse seen at Athens. (3) was an annular eclipse, shown as traversing the length of the Mediterranean from the Pyrenees to Palestine (Oppolzer's rough track) or Lower Egypt (Ginz.1899, Map XIV); it probably had a somewhat greater magnitude than (2) as a partial eclipse at Athens.
The time intervals to be considered are (i) between the observed eclipse and the death of Proclus, (ii) between the death of Proclus and the predicted eclipse. With regard to (i), what we have translated (with Rosán) as "a year before his death" is προ ενιαυτου της τελευτης ; this would presumably allow an interval differing from one year by a few months either way. Other translations are "for a year before his death" (Newt. 1970, 1972) and before the year of his death' (Ginz.). With regard to (ii), what we have translated as "about the end of the first year" is πλη&pho;ουμενου του πρωτου ενιαυτου ; this is usually taken as meaning after the death of Proclus, and does strongly suggest an interval fairly close to one year.
The most likely combination is B2, i.e. death of Proclus on 485 April 17 and predicted eclipse S.486 May 19. On account of the comparative precision of (ii), the minor possibilities, in order of decreasing likelihood, appear to be A1, C3, A2. The likelihood of C3 is somewhat enhanced if "about the end of the first year" may be taken as referring to a year 'of Julian' beginning on 486 Nov.3 and ending on 487 Nov.2. See Newt.1972, 526, 540-1.
The above relates to eclipses within a year or two of the death of Proclus. There are also a queried horoscopic date of birth and an age at death to be accommodated. See Rosán (loc.cit. under S.484, 34) and references there given. Neugebauer 1975 (2, 1032ff.) discusses the horoscope in detail and confirms 412 Feb.8 for the birth of Proclus.
Elias 1910, 74 says "An 797. En lequel le soleil s'éclipsa le lundu 19 'Ijar, à neuf heures de la journée, et les étoiles apparurent". Seleucid 797 is AD 485-6 (autumn to autumn in Elias), and 'Ijar is May, so that the date is correct. "At nine hours of the day" in Elias implies little more than that the eclipse occurred in the afternoon; this is doubtless true, as the noon point is in Libya (Map XIV in Ginz.1899). The track continued approximately from West to East through Sinai and Northern Arabia. For this eclipse it happens that Elias, uncharacteristically, gives no source; but his sources in general include Arabic as well as Syrian authors.