Автор сообщения: gorm
Дата и время сообщения: 17 January 2007 at 01:33:30:
В ответ на сообщение: Re: Нерегулярность (Re: это, пардон, натяжка)
Чуйю, не дождуся средневековой грамматики латинского языка...
"Donatus and Priscian are the best known writers and the most important authorities in the preservation and the transmission of classical learning, and particularly of the study and teaching of Latin from the classical period through the Middle Ages into the modern world. They have earned their designation as 'the schoolmasters of Europe' (H. Waddell, The Wandering Scholars [London, 1926], p. xxix).
Donatus (fourth century a.d.) wrote two short Latin grammars known as the Ars minor and the Ars maior, both dealing primarily with the morphology of the Latin word classes (parts of speech), on principles originating in the Techne grammatik'e of Dionysius Thrax (c. 100 B.C.), a work still extant in a later and altered form, probably from around the third or fourth century a.d.
Priscian (c. 500 a.d.), working in Constantinople, wrote a much larger, comprehensive grammar of Latin, running to more than 1,000 printed pages today. This work, the Institutiones grammaticae, deals first with Latin orthographical phonetics and syllable structure, but its greater part, volumes 2-16, gives an exhaustive account of the morphology of the eight word classes of the language, leaving the final two volumes, 17 and 18, to Latin syntax. These last draw heavily in theory and exposition on prior Greek syntacticians, notably Apollonius (c. a.d. 200), who left us with the first systematic treatment of Greek syntax within the mainline tradition. Priscian repeatedly expressed his debt to him.
By an irony of history Priscian's grammar turned out to have very different results from its author's intentions. As is made clear by its frequent references to Greek, it was designed at an early stage in the Eastern (Byzantine) Empire to provide the resources for teachers of Latin to mainly Greek-speaking pupils. At this time Constantinople was still envisaged as 'New Rome', with official titles drawn from Roman days and with Latin the intended language of governmental appointees. In the event Latin inevitably died out by the seventh century, except among scholars; but once the Institutiones had become widely known in the West from around 800 it soon became the standard authority for the teaching of Latin. Summarized and commented on during several centuries, in the later Middle Ages it was taken as the official Latin database by the late medieval scholastic grammarians, the Modistae, in their philosophical exposition of universal grammar. The popularity of Priscian's grammar is evidenced by the number of separate manuscripts known to have existed."
Latin Grammar The Sankt Gall Priscian Commentary R. Hofman
Zur Zuverlässigkeit der bedeutendsten lateinischen Grammatik: Die 'Ars' des Aelius Donatus J.-W. Beck
Review author[s]: R. H. Robins
The Classical Review, New Ser., Vol. 48, No. 2. (1998), pp. 366-368.