Автор сообщения: gorm
Дата и время сообщения: 24 January 2007 at 12:05:54:
В ответ на сообщение: Почему христианская Пасха после весеннего равноденствия?
Подскажите, пожалуйста, почему христианская Пасха после весеннего равноденствия?
Существовало ли у иудеев на определенном этапе правило начинать Пасху после равноденствия?
(Быть может, наравне с правилом о начале года после сбора колосьев).
Вот кусок на тему из книги S.Stern, Calendar and Community. A history of the Jewish Calendar Second Century BCE - Tenth Century CE, Oxford Univ. Press, 2001.
2.2.2 The rule of the equinox
As to the 'limits' within which Passover would have occurred, evidence may be drawn from the work of Aristobulus of Alexandria (mid second century BCE)3. Fragments of his work are cited by Anatolius bishop of Laodicea (Syria), whose treatise on the date of Easter, written in the 270s CE, is itself preserved in fragmentary form in Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History. There, Aristobulus and later Jewish authorities are credited with the 'rule of the equinox', which is that Passover should always occur on or after the vernal equinox:
And this [i.e. the rule of the equinox] is not our own reckoning, but it was known to the Jews long ago even before Christ and it was carefully observed by them. One can learn it from what is said by Philo, Josephus, (and) Musaeus, and not only by these, but also by both of the Agathobuli, who are still more ancient and are surnamed the teachers. One can learn it also from what is said by the excellent Aristobulus ... When these (writers) explain questions concerning the Exodus, they say that it is necessary that all alike sacrifice the Passover after the vernal equinox, in the middle of the first month; and this ioccurs when the sun passes through the first sector of the solar, or as some of them call (it), the zodiacal cycle (Anatolius ap. Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 7. 32. 16-17).4
Not all the authorities mentioned by Anatolius are extant: nothing is known, indeed, of the Agathobuli, and the attribution of another work, equally unknown, to a Musaeus may well be pseudepigraphic.5 It is impossible to comment, therefore, on the reliability of Anatolius' interpretation of their works.
But Anatolius' attribution of the rule of the equinox to Philo and Josephus, whose works we are well acquainted with, is actually debatable, as I shall argue below (sections 2.3.1-2). This may cast doubt on Anatolius' interpretation of the other sources he cites, not least of Aristobulus. It should be noted that the attribution of this rule to ancient Jewish authorities suited the needs of Anatolius, whose whole purpose was to justify the adoption of this rule for his own computation of the date of Easter. We are entitled, therefore, to question the impartiality of his interpretation.
To compound this problem, the only fragment of Aristobulus on the date of Passover which we possess comes from Anatolius himself. This passage is consecutive to the one quoted above:
And Aristobulus adds that on the feast of Passover of necessity not only the sun will be passing through an equinoctial sector, but the moon also. For, since there are two equinoctial sectors, the vernal and the autumnal, and since they are diametrically opposite one another, and since the day of Passover was assigned to the fourteenth of the month in the evening, the moon will stand in the positions opposite and over against the sun, just as one can see (it) at the seasons of full moon. (So) the one, the sun, will be in the sector of the vernal equinox, and the other, the moon, of necessity will be in (the sector of) the autumnal (equinox) (Anatolius ap. Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 1. 32. 17-18).
The status of this passage is problematic in many respects. Firstly, it is unclear how much of it is a citation from Aristobulus. Although it is possible that the whole passage is Aristobulus', it is equally conceivable that only the first sentence is his, the rest ('For, since there are two equinoctial ...') being Anatolius' comment on it. Secondly, it is unclear whether the citation is verbatim, or only a paraphrase.
Nevertheless, it can hardly be doubted that Aristobulus stated, in one form or another, that at the time of Passover the sun is in an 'equinoctial sector' (ishmerinon tmhma). The meaning of this phrase, which Rufinus translates as aequinoctii pars or simply as aequinoctium (the equinox),6 is obviously critical. The equinox—when day and night are of equal length—is astronomically defined as the point in time when the sun crosses the celestial equator. The point of crossing (where the equator and the ecliptic intersect) can hardly be referred to as a 'sector' (or segment: tmhma). Besides, Aristobulus cannot possibly mean that the full moon always occurs on the same clay as the equinox. A possible interpretation of'equinoctial sector' could be, therefore, a sector in the sun's
trajectory (the ecliptic) that straddles the celestial equator; which in calendrical terms would correspond to a period before and after the equinox.
Anatolius, however, interprets this phrase as referring to the first sector (dwdekathmorion) of the solar year or ('as some of them call it') the zodiacal cycle; as he explains, the solar year consists of twelve such sectors which correspond to twelve months, the first of which begins at the vernal equinox (ap. Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 7. 32. 15-17).7 This implies that Passover always occurs after the equinox, within the first of the twelve parts of the solar year.
Anatolius' interpretation is sufficiently plausible not to warrant excessive scepticism. As Anatolius adds, moreover, 'many other matters have been discussed by (Aristobulus) ... in which he attempts to show that the festival of Passover and of Unleavened Bread must be observed after the equinox' (ibid. 7: 32: 19). The relevant passages of Aristobulus are unfortunately not quoted, as Anatolius considers it inappropriate to engage in matters 'from which the veil of the Mosaic law has been removed' (ibid.); nevertheless, we may give him the benefit of the doubt and assume that in other passages, Aristobulus states more explicitly that Passover comes after the equinox.
This passage of Aristobulus is the earliest attestation of what was later to be known as the 'rule of the equinox'. This rule has no apparent basis, indeed, in biblical sources. :
Synchronization of the festivals with the solar year is implicit in the Bible, but only in relation to agricultural seasons: Shavu'ot occurs at the time of the wheat harvest (Exod. 23: 16, 34: 22; Deut. 16: 9-10), and Tabernacles at the time of the ingathering of the crop (Exod. 23: 16, Lev. 23: 33^14, Deut. 16: 13). The first month, when Passover occurs, is called HHHHHH HHH ('the month of `aviv': Exod. 13: 4, 23: 15, 34: 18; Deut. 16: 1), an apparent reference to the ripeness of the barley crop (see Exod. 9: 31); the Septuagint renders this as mhn twn newn, 'the month of the new (crop)'.
In Exod. 34: 22, the festival of Tabernacles is associated with the phrase HHHH HHHHH. Rabbinic sources interpret this phrase as meaning the (autumnal) equinox,8 but this is unlikely to have been its original meaning.9 The most literal translation of HHHH (tequfah) is 'turn of the year'. Onkelos takes this to mean the 'end' of the (agricultural) year, as suggested indeed by the parallelism with Exod. 23:16. The Septuagint renders it as the 'middle of the year'.
None of these verses, however, suggest the use of the equinox as a criterion for the synchronization of the festivals with the seasonal cycle.
Aristobulus' rule of the equinox is more likely to have originated, therefore, from outside the Bible. It reflects an interest in astronomy which may have been fostered by the cultural environment of Ptolemaic Alexandria; the passage cited by Anatolius certainly shows awareness of astronomical theory. This raises the possibility that Aristobulus' concept of when Passover occurs may be no more than theoretical.
In practice, indeed, it remains possible that the Jews of Alexandria did not concern themselves with anything but ]aviv, the biblical injunction that Passover occur when the new crops are ripe. If so, the rule of the equinox may not have been adopted by the Jews till much later, possibly not before the fourth century ce.10
3 Schu:rer (1973-87) iii. 579-87.
4 This fragment of Anatolius' Canons on the Passover was published separately by Denis (1970) 227-8; my translation is from Charlesworth (1983 5) ii. 837.
5 Charlesworth (1983-5) ii. 837, note b.
6 Also in Denis (1970) 227 8.
7 This scheme finds a parallel in 1 Enoch's account of the solar year. According to 1 Enoch 72, the sun rises from and sets in a total of 12 'gates', 6 in the east and 6 in the west, of which, both in the east and in the west, 3 gates are on either side of the equator. In the 1st (solar) month the sun rises from the 4th gate (72: 6); this month begins therefore at the vernal equinox.
8 See section 4.1.2.
9 In Ps. 19: 7 the term HHHHH may mean, perhaps, 'solstice', i.e. the time when the sun reaches the 'extremities' (HHHH) of the sky (the northernmost point of its trajectory in the summer, and the southernmost point in the winter).
l0 In the rabbinic calendar: see section 4.2.2.