Мир глазами Птолемея: Попытка решения задачи, ч. 3

Автор сообщения: Егермейстер
Дата и время сообщения: 15 May 2004 at 06:13:50:

В ответ на сообщение: Мир глазами Птолемея: Попытка решения задачи, ч. 2

В контексте задачи совместного картографирования звезд "Альмагеста" и Ойкумены из Птолемеевской "Географии", перейдем к рассмотрению Главы 6 Книги 7 "Географии". Имеющиеся в распоряжении два англ. перевода обозначим S1932 (E. L. Stevenson, 1932) и BJ2000 (J.L. Berggren and A. Jones, 2000). Начала отрывков будем обозначать '->', а концы отрывков -- '<-'.

Название главы:

S1932 ->
Chapter VI. Description of the Armillary Sphere with a representation of the inhabited earth
<- S1932

BJ2000 ->
6. The mapping of a ringed globe with the oikoumene
<- BJ2000

Пер. S1932 ->
Глава VI. Описание армиллярной сферы [astrolabe] с представлением обитаемой части Земли
<- Пер. S1932

Пер. BJ2000 ->
6. Картографирование глобуса с кольцами и с ойкуменой
<- Пер. BJ2000

Пер. по смыслу ->
Глава 6. Как изобразить макет небесной сферы с Землёй внутри него так, чтобы была видна обитаемая часть Земли (Ойкумена)
<- Пер. по смыслу

Абзацы 1-3:

S1932 ->
In what we have stated above concerning the relative location of different places on the earth we have made use of equal measurements. It will not be out of place to add to this an explanation of the way in which our earth can be depicted on a plane surrounded by an armillary sphere. Several have attempted to give this demonstration but have ended with this most absurd statement: "Let those represent the earth as a sphere who understand the earth's interior."

Let it now be our plan to delineate on a plane an armillary sphere enclosing a part of the earth, with the assumption that the point of view is such that we look directly at the intersection of the meridian passing through the signs of the tropics and cutting in half the length of the inhabited earth and the parallel drawn through Syene which cuts in half the breadth of the inhabited earth.

Let the calculations of the size of the armillary sphere, of the earth, and the distance of the point of view be such, that in the interval between the circle of the equator and that along the circle of the summer solstice the whole known part of the earth shall appear with the more southerly semicircle constructed to appear through the middle of the circle upon the earth, in order that there may not be by this any obscuration of the inhabited earth placed in the northern hemisphere. Following this plan it is clear that the aforesaid meridians will present the appearance of one straight line following the same axis, and further for like reason as the parallel through Syene will appear perpendicular to that line it will make all others appear to be drawn in the form of curves to these straight lines, namely, the meridian which cuts both poles and the parallel which is drawn through Syene, and let these lines be more curved than others which are more distant from the straight lines, which is an obvious adjustment.
<- S1932

BJ2000 ->
The caption for the general exposition [of the world map] would be of suitable length if carried out to this extent. It would not be out of place, however, to add a method for drawing the hemisphere containing the oikoumene on a plane as it is seen [on a globe], and surrounded by a ringed globe; for many people have attempted such a demonstration, but it is manifest that they have attempted it in a most illogical fashion.

Let it be required to map on a plane a ringed globe containing a part of the earth within itself, on the hypothesis that the eye occupies such a position that it will be collinear with the points where the meridian through the tropic points [of the ecliptic ring] intersects the parallel drawn through Soene on [the surface of] the earth. The [meridian] that bisects the longitudinal dimension of our oikoumene will also be assumed to be lying under this [meridian through the tropic points]; and [the parallel through Soene] also approximately bisects the latitudinal dimension of the oikoumene.

Let the ratios of the sizes of the ringed globe and the earth and the distance of the eye be such that the whole known part of the earth can be seen in the space between the ring on the equator and the ring on the Summer Tropic, and let the southern semicircle of the ecliptic circle stand over the earth so that, when the oikuomene has been placed in the northern hemisphere, it will not be hidden by [the ecliptic ring]. It is obvious at once on these assumptions [1] that the foregoing meridians [i.e., the meridian through the tropic points and the meridian bisecting the oikoumene] will produce an illusion of a single straight line coinciding with the [earth's] axis, since the eye is situated in the plane through them, and also [2] that the parallel through Soene [will appear as a straight line] at right angles to [the central meridian] for the same reason. The other circles that are included [in the drawing] will appear curved with their concavities toward the straight lines, the meridians [concave] toward the [axis] through the poles, and the parallels [concave] toward the [parallel] through Soene; and the further away [the circles] are on either side, the more [curved] they will appear.
<- BJ2000

Из сравнения двух переводов понятно, почему я привел оба. Перевод на русский этих абзацев будет в следующем сообщении.

1688. Мир глазами Птолемея: Попытка решения задачи - Дмитрий Гусев 08:08 14.05.04 (73)
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